Twin Parks Montessori Schools - Preschool Manhattan, Upper West Side, New York City (NYC)

Kathy’s Insights

Insights on the Montessori method and Early Childhood Education from Dr. Kathy Roemer

Kathy’s Insights

What does it take to help students become life long learners?

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board-812129_1280In Montessori schools we offer opportunities for students to develop life long learner skills in the following ways:

• Respect for all

• Choice in activity and work selections to develop interests and passions

• Opportunities to share and listen and ask questions

• Creating classrooms with a balance of challenge and caring

• Classrooms where mistakes are opportunities for learning

• Teachers who are guides and role models

• Multi-aged groups where students find their place naturally

• Uninterrupted blocks of work time

• Opportunities to collaborate with other students

• Reliance on intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivators

• Encouragement for efforts and multiple attempts on the path to success

• Partnership with parents and understanding of the importance of family time

• A sense of humor

In the Mind/Shift article about teaching strategies it states that when educators make space for play, and passion, students develop purpose.

Watch Tony Wagner’s TED talk for more on helping students become life long learners!

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Transition from Summer to a New School Year – Are You Ready?

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Do you know people who over-commit their time and energy? Sure you do. I just have to look in the mirror! Can you remember how we organized our time before we had cell phones, laptops and iPads? Being busy has become a status symbol. As we make a change from summer and vacation to a new school year beginning we all have to make adjustments in our sleep and active schedules. On top of that, there are several holidays throughout the fall and winter that adds stress to our daily lives. I have already seen Halloween decorations in stores.


We could write a book about our experiences with our children and holidays. What is expected to be an exciting visit with extended family and might include shopping and gift giving often has unexpected results. Our children often behave out of character, and the adults wind up exhausted or suffering from migraines that can last from now until next year. (I think I will save the topic of holidays for another post!) Instead of trying to please everyone – including your children, now is the time to evaluate what worked last year and what you might consider changing.



back-to-school-parents-celebrate-vanPrepare your children for any upcoming event by talking about it beforehand, whether it is starting school, a shopping trip, a visit with friends, or travel out of town. Explanations can be brief with opportunities for your child to ask questions if s/he wants to know more. Your child may surprise you with feedback that lets you know what works for her/him. Review your expectations prior to social situations such as a dinner party. This will help children know the rules in advance. This can be as simple as letting them know they will be sitting at the table with others to eat and then will be able to play afterwards. Remind them to use their indoor voices and to be careful of breakable items. Always leave extra time to get ready so everyone is not rushed. Allowing for plenty of down time helps enormously. Be aware that constantly changing plans or making last minute decisions will increase the potential for stress. Also, take care in making promises you may not be able to keep.


Children crave routine and consistency. While a new routine is being established, it is important to be consistent with mealtimes and bedtimes as much as possible. Before leaving the house to go in the morning, make sure everyone has a substantial breakfast – including parents. Also, carry small healthy snacks and bottled water along with you.

Take breaks during the day before things get out of control. Expect young children to become cranky or display inappropriate behaviors occasionally. Remember that they have shorter attentions spans than you do and they tire easily. What happens if your child does start crying, running away from you, begins twirling or pulling, has accidents, or is not able to sleep? This maybe a good time to teach relaxation techniques – for you and your child. Sit down, take deep breaths, have a snack together, play with play-dough, draw a picture, or go to a quiet place and read a book together.


Slow down next week and spend time at home with your children. Rest and relaxation before a schedule change is paramount to a successful transition. We are all able to handle new things when our minds and bodies are well rested and nourished. Take walks with your family. Walk past your child’s school to see how long it takes.


Remember to Play! Build with blocks, have a tea party under a sheet-covered table, have a pajama party. Sing in the car, at home, or any time at all. Reading to your child and singing songs are two fantastic ways that you can promote early literacy. Take walks in the parks to find hidden nooks and crannies to play hide and go seek. These intimate times with your children will have lasting benefits and create memories that can carry on to the next generation.

Be proactive- if we are paying attention, we can redirect our children’s extra energy before a situation gets out of control. Sometimes the situation requires our thoughts and actions to be about our children rather than our own expectations. After all, your greatest gift to your child is you – your time and your undivided attention. Everything else is just trimmings.


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A Montessori School’s Community

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Education is enormously impacted by our global society and technology’s influence on the ways we communicate. These changes directly affect the learning that takes place in our schools.

Do you wonder what you can expect from a school’s community?

School communities include families who are returning and those that are new, teachers, staff and administration, caregivers, grandparents, and building maintenance crews. Everyone is contributing to provide a safe environment that is both educational and enjoyable for its members. Your family, the school, and the location of the school (urban, suburban, rural) are three major contexts in which children live and grow. These overlapping spheres of influence are important because they have a direct impact on children’s learning and development. One of Twin Parks Montessori School’s (TPMS) beliefs is that we form a partnership with parents during this journey of learning for children.

Our community shares common values: children are precious beings in our care; family time is important and protected; excellent education and expectations are vital; creativity, independence and intrinsic motivation are important life skills; and, we rely on one another to help our children experience success. The location of TPMS in New York City also provides a globally diverse experience for our community of learners of all ages.


We also strive to continue the work of Maria Montessori by following her tenants of respect for all, fostering independence, and enabling large blocks of uninterrupted work time for students to discover and learn. We have common goals of developing executive function skills with our students: planning, organizing, collaborating, remaining flexible, using memory, patience, persevering, and demonstrating empathy for others.

At TPMS, we strive for cordial, collegial and encouraging communication with parents. We use multiple tools for communicating news from the classrooms, articles on parenting and education and general announcements from the school administration. Each classroom has an email account and teachers are available during the day to make and receive telephone calls.

Parents are also invited to participate in a variety of parent education events at school. Our classroom orientations are an opportunity to learn more about your child’s classroom and meet the other parents who will share the year with you. Parents use our web-based Google calendars to sync with theirs as a reminder of these invaluable learning opportunities.

The first decade of life is the time when children are developing their personalities and moral compasses. At no other time is overall growth so pronounced and rapidly changing. Perhaps the most influential teachers are those that a child experiences during his/her first 10 years. These first teachers assist the child and his/her family as they negotiate their physical, behavioral, cognitive and social development. Your decision to enroll in a Montessori school enables your child to experience and excel in an environment tailored to his/her developmental needs with materials that will provide comfort and challenges.

The search for a vibrant school community must be on your checklist of essential ingredients for the education of your child. Your school community, its values and commitment to education are essential for the success of your child in joining the dynamic society in which they live.


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Starting School: Your First Separation from Your Child

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Adults have experienced many separations throughout their lives: from parents at the start of a new school year, or joining a child care group, our grandparents as they age, our siblings when they go off to college or start their own family, or losing beloved pets that we spent joyous hours playing with. Consciously or not, we carry the feelings that we experienced in our past to our current separations from our children when they start school for the first time. It is important that we do relay anxiety or hesitation when our children are entering the classroom, and here we’ll guide you through your first separation from your child.

Mothers and babies at school


“Phase-in” refers to the initial time period of transition for children as they begin to attend school. During this time children become familiar with the new environment, new people and new routines. The key to a successful phase-in process is that it’s done gradually. It may begin with you and your child spending an hour in the classroom and gradually work up to the full work cycle, lunch, rest and then the full day. Teacher will observe the children carefully to see what interests they have and remind them of the activity the next day. Building connections early is essential.

Toddlers at schoolDepending on the age of the child, the phase-in process will differ. Babies sense the warmth and caring emanating from other adults and feel content when their needs are met. Young toddlers are experiencing a new found sense of independence and are learning that they are not a physical part of their parents. Object permanence is a lesson that is not fully mastered at this age. Toddler do not have a sense of time to know their parent will come back after rest or at the end of the workday. Children who are in the 3-5-age range are eager to try new things, meet new friends and discover how things work. Their acclimation often takes a short amount of time.

Early Childhood

At Twin Parks Montessori School, we phase in children slowly and follow the child’s lead and comfort level. Parents are notified that phase in may take two weeks or longer. Teachers make home visits for babies and toddlers to become familiar with the physical space the child lives in. Attention is paid to noise level, feeding schedule, lighting in the room when the child sleeps. It is also helpful for the child to see the teachers for the first time in their own home with their parents and get the sense that teachers are friends.

For all children, returning and new, we email a picture of the teaching team. It helps to learn names and faces before school begins. One parent shared that they framed the teachers’ picture and each night the child said goodnight to teachers before going to sleep.Working with the Pink Tower


A few key tips for successful separation:

• Walk by the school before the school year starts so your child become familiar with the route and hears the words, “your school”.

• Schedule some down time before school begins, family time to be together taking walks, reading books, playing together will help ensure your child is well-rested and ready for a new beginning.

• Tell a personal, positive story about your experience in school.

• Be positive; your child can sense your own separation anxieties; if you’re enthusiastic,

your child will be too.

• Read books about school when you’re home.

• If your child cries, remain calm. Instead of saying, “There’s nothing to be afraid of,” or,

“There’s no reason to cry.” It’s best to address your child in a positive way: “It’s okay to be afraid. Your teachers will take care of you.”

• Never sneak out or “slip away.” Tell your child that you’re leaving the classroom. Be consistent and give one quick goodbye, each time you leave.

• When you leave, tell your child where you’re going, when you’ll be coming back, and what you’ll be doing. Please follow the teacher’s instructions on when to come back, when to leave, etc.

• Do not ask your child for permission to leave the classroom. For example, “Is it okay if I go now?” This can be confusing to your child. Be matter of fact instead.

• Please trust that we will comfort your child when you leave and that your child is in good hands.

You and your child are not alone in experiencing some trepidation. The first days of school are exciting and full of unknowns for everyone, children, parents, teachers, and administration. Teachers have told me they pick out their clothes the night before, have their bag all ready to go, and still they loose sleep thinking about the first day of school! You are in great company!


We love Twin Parks Montessori School!


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Childhood Traits That Predict Adult Success

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This morning I had a humorous conversation about childhood traits that predict adult success. Is it yearning to be someone you are not? Is it wishing your family had the financial ability to host a birthday party in a private jet? Is it wearing the name-brand clothing and sneakers? Or is it being able to delay gratification, finding joy in small things, reading for pleasure or being a good friend?

Over the past 10 years, more research has been conducted and written about the traits that predict adult success for a well-rounded, productive life. The term executive function has become the buzz word to describe the personal growth and development of a person from birth to late-twenties in terms of judgement, planning, organizing, using working memory and flexibility in thinking. This development happens in the frontal cortex and is added by the emotional centers of the brain.

Executive functions cover a variety of skills that allow one to organize behavior in a purposeful, coordinated manner and to reflect on or analyze the success of the strategies employed (Banich, 2004). Executive functions include processes such as goal selection, planning, monitoring, sequencing, and other supervisory processes which permit the individual to impose organization and structure upon his/or her environment (Foster, Black and Bronskill, 1997).

Maria Montessori understood child development and wrote about these important skills in 1912. She understood that environment influences “spontaneous discipline, continuous and happy work, social sentiments of help and sympathy for others.: Executive function skills are encouraged in a Montessori classroom where a love of order and work, concentration and the power to act from real choice exists and leads one to self mastery. “For it is from the completed cycle of an activity from methodical concentration, that the child develops equilibrium, elasticity, adaptability, and the resulting power to perform the higher actions, such as those which are termed acts of obedience.” (Dr. Montessori’s Own Handbook, 1914).

A longitudinal study, conducted by Pennsylvania State University that included 753 Kindergarten aged students followed into adulthood suggested that children’s emotional intelligence could set the stage for professional and interpersonal success throughout life. Montessori educators agree with these findings.

For additional suggestions of ways you can increase your child’s executive function capacity. Download Harvard University’s activities guide Enhancing and Practicing Executive Function Skills with Children from Infancy to Adolescence.

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Ten Reasons to Choose Montessori Education

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  • 1. Successful education for over 100 years. The first Montessori children’s house was started in 1907 and the philosophy has spread to all continents and many languages. Montessori is an international method of teaching and learning.
  • 2. Montessori is a philosophy for life. Through promoting independence as a young age, children have freedom to choose and develop into life long learners. Children are joyful in Montessori classrooms.
  • 3. Focus on learner outcomes including executive function skills: working memory, planning, sequencing, delayed gratification, grit, organizing and other capabilities that enable a person to engage successfully in independent, purposive, self-serving behavior.
  • 4. Beautiful, thoughtful, educational manipulative materials. Children learn through their senses first and with their hands and minds. Materials and lessons move from concrete to abstract.
  • 5. Focus on Peace within yourself, with each other, in the classrooms and in the world at large. When conflict happens children learn to process with one another and are able to problem solve using appropriate verbal skills.
  • 6. Lessons in Practical Life that allow children to do daily chores and learn to take care of themselves and their belongings. This produces confidence that is long lasting.
  • 7. Global awareness and cosmic curriculum that exposes children to the universe, community and his place within the world in which they live.
  • 8. Curiosity is encouraged and children learn to ask hard questions. Children are encouraged to find their own answers and teachers and students often learn together.
  • 9. Learning individually at the children’s own pace in an non-competitive environment and they are celebrated for who they are and what they have achieved.
  • 10. Belief that parents are the child’s primary teachers. Provides encouragement for the families to build systems based on respect, courtesy and mutual responsibilities.

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Montessori is More than a Childhood Education

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For many years, Montessori has been incorporated in programs for all ages of society – Montessori is more than a childhood education. One of my fondest memories of working with elementary students was when we had friends that we visited in a local nursing home. The sheer joy that flowed between the children and the residents was palpable. They shared stories, read to one another, crafted together, and even played wheel chair volleyball.

Montessori friends of mine are working with our elder citizens in several cities. Watch this video on how Montessori environments are helping bring new life to our often forgotten generation!

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Montessori Classroom Communities

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At this time of year, it is a pleasure to walk the halls of Twin Parks Montessori Schools. The classrooms emit a quiet hum of activity. Children are working on large projects like the Thousand Bead Chain, writing stories, building cities with blocks or inventing new ways to work with all of the sensorial materials at once. Toddlers are cooking, taking longer walks, completing work cycles and having conversations with one another. Our infants are no longer babies. They are walking, talking, engaging toddlers!

Let's have a conversation while we have our snack!

Let’s have a conversation while we have our snack!

Our Montessori classroom communities are normalized - a Montessori term that does not refer to “typical” or “average”. Normalization in observed when children are allowed freedom in an environment suited to their needs allowing them to blossom. After a period of great concentration - engaged with materials matching their development – children are refreshed and content.

Toddlers sharing work on a mat.

Toddlers sharing work on a mat.

This is also the time when executive function skills are at their peak. Children are problem-solving with one another, negotiating, and voicing their opinions. They are experimenting, searching for solutions, planning, preparing and executing their plans. They are delaying gratification, taking turns and inviting others to join their work. They are using their memory for understanding. They are working as a community.

Toddlers working on their dressing frames.

Toddlers working on their dressing frames.


Author, artist and book designer, Deng Ming-Dao talked about community that matches Montessori classroom communities:

Everyone understands that burning wood produces fire. But when fire feeds on fire, that is a rare condition that yields the greatest illumination. Two flames come together and yield light more magnificent than either could have given forth alone. In the case of community activity, this means that when one cooperates with others, the accomplishments are greater than what the individuals can do on their own. Such a situation requires a harmony that will generate ideas, inspiration, as well as momentum for growth and action. If the combinations occur properly, the results will be like fire feeding upon fire and will illuminate the world.

Ming-Dao, Deng. 365 Tao Daily Meditations. New York:  Harper-Collins, 1992.


Early childhood cleaning up after enrichment.

Early childhood cleaning up after enrichment.

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The Great Outdoors – Are we experiencing it?

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r1032209_11818803Long ago in another galaxy - I mean generation – children played outside until lunch and then again until it got dark. Children built forts and learned skills of problem solving and negotiating. Today, in New York City and many other metro cities, children have supervised play in the park and if they are fortunate enough to have a country place, limited freedom outdoors.

Richard Louv, has been writing about The Nature Principal and The Nature Deficit Disorder for many years. Louv tells us that research indicates that direct exposure to nature is essential for healthy childhood development and for physical and emotional health of children and adults. His books provide clear examples of ways to include nature in everyday life.

Twin Parks Montessori Schools are so fortunate to have an abundance of nature in our front yards. Both Central Park and Riverside influenced our schools’ names.

Listen to this NPR story, “Out of the Classroom and Into the Woods” on All Things Considered. Perhaps your family can plan a whole day outside.

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Motivation, Recognition and Montessori

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Recognition is a valuable motivator. For centuries, money was the number one motivator in the workplace. Today with five generations often sharing work places with a variety of roles, we have numerous kinds of recognition that motivates people. Recognizing someone’s input to a plan or follow through with a project helps her feel valued as a member of the community. Children are also motivated to learn new concepts, social interactions and behavioral expectations in our Montessori classrooms.

Montessori education contributes to how children learn and feel valued and recognized. Education is a way of looking at and interacting with the world, and for Montessori-ans it is a lifelong journey. The Montessori method of education offers several components that promote executive function skills such as perseverance, self-motivation, and understanding delayed gratification - very important skills for human growth and development. These skills have a direct bearing on a person becoming thoughtful about what constitutes “recognition,” both as an individual and within social and work groups.

The Montessori method is an internationally recognized educational method developed over 100 years ago by Dr. Maria Montessori, a 19th century Renaissance woman. Montessori method is more than a curriculum. It is a professional movement whose practitioners typically feel passionate about its advocacy, and it emphasizes collaborative environments without grades or tests; multi-aged classrooms as well as self-directed learning; and students’ discovery within extended blocks of time. Originally developed for early childhood-aged students (ages 3-6 years typically), Montessori educational programs today have an age range of birth to 18 years of age. There are approximately 20,000 Montessori schools worldwide and 4,500 in the United States of America (NAMTA, 2015). Of the 4,500 Montessori schools in the USA, about 10% are in the public sector.

Montessori Child PaintingMontessori in not just a curriculum for teaching it is a philosophy of life. Being educated is not a destination but rather a journey for life. It is a way of looking at and interacting with the world. This view of education is more in sync what is happening in the workplace and the marketplace, which is good news. Firms and companies want people who are life long learners. (Denning).

One major contribution of the Montessori method is focus on a carefully prepared work environment. In order for children to take academic and social learning risks, they require an environment where mistakes are viewed positively as opportunities for learning to take place. Through scientific observations of the level of knowledge of each individual, Montessori teachers adjust the concept and skill-based activities sequentially in a classroom, achieving a balance of both comfort and challenge for the student.

Another universal tenant of the Montessori approach is to allow a large uninterrupted block of work time. Generally for children under 6 years, a 3-hour block of time is necessary. For children over age 6, the work time could be such as from the time they enter the classroom until they break for lunch. The term “uninterrupted” means that children are not pulled out of class for extra-curricular activities, nor are they interrupted if they are actively engaged in an activity. Similar to a constructive model, children make choices, repeat activities, participate in lessons, have a snack, read a book, look out of the window, etc. Research indicates that in order for people to be creative in the modern workplace, uninterrupted work time is essential.

Montessori classrooms encourage children to explore, discover, engage, share, and live within appropriately designed space. Montessori teachers carefully choose their words and communications to encourage rather than praise children for attempts to work a given task, experience trial and error, and gain successful completion of an activity. Encouraging, positive phrases are voiced by the teacher, such as “you worked hard on that (activity)”, or “you concentrated for a long time” or “ your tried again and again until your figured it out“. Recognition is focused on the child and his/her efforts. The teacher does not praise with “I” messages, or place judgment on work products such as expressions via art activities.

Much like an emergent curriculum model, Montessori children are permitted to follow their interests. Another byline of Montessori method is the concepts of “follow the child”. Through observation, teachers discern the interests of the children by noting the activities they are drawn to. Activities incorporating these interests are integrated into the curriculum areas such as language arts, math, science and geography. This type of evolving classroom and curriculum means that children have freedom within both external and self-actuated limits. The prepared classroom, consistent schedule, and respectful ground rules all contribute to what defines these limits.

Intrinsic motivation is another important tenant of Montessori education. Extrinsic rewards from adults in a traditional education setting, in the form of praise, stickers, trinkets, gifts, promises, etc., cause the child to feel good briefly and superficially, i.e., as long as the treat lasts. Intrinsic motivation on the other hand brings long-term pride, confidence, and self-worth to begin a meaningful life journey. Life-long learners are motivated from within.

Many of you probably understand that some of these educational approaches I’ve mentioned have counterparts in modern work place culture for adults. However you may not be aware that business leaders have gained benefits directly from the Montessori method. In 2011, Peter Sims wrote an article in the Wall Street Journal titled “The Montessori Mafia.” In it he writes,

Ironically, the Montessori educational approach might be the surest route to joining the creative elite, which are so overrepresented by the school’s alumni that one might suspect a Montessori Mafia: Google’s founders Larry Page and Sergei Brin, Amazon’s Jeff Bezos, video game pioneer Will Wright, and Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales, not to mention Julia Child and rapper Sean “P.Diddy” Combs.

Is there something going on here?  Is there something about the Montessori approach that nurtures creativity and inventiveness that we can all learn from?

Interesting correlations between how creative business executives think was presented in a survey of 3,000 executives by Brigham Young University. Hal Gregersen, of the Institut Euopeen d’Administration des Affairs (INSEAD) business school said

“A number of the innovative entrepreneurs also went to Montessori schools, where they learned to follow their curiosity,” Mr. Gregersen said. “To paraphrase the famous Apple ad campaign, innovators not only learned early on to think different, they act different (and even talk different).”

Another confirming moment in Montessori education came when Sergei Brin and Larry Page told Barbara Walters on her USA-televised program that they did not attribute their out-of-the-box thinking to their Stanford University parents but rather “We both went to Montessori school,” Mr. Page said, “and I think it was part of that training of not following rules and orders, and being self-motivated, questioning what’s going on in the world, doing things a little bit differently.”

The Economist blog, named after Joseph Schumpeter, states:

Montessori management has plenty of supporters in the higher reaches of business. The bosses of Google (Larry Page and Sergey Brin), Amazon (Jeff Bezos) and Wikipedia (Jimmy Wales) were all educated in Montessori schools. So was Will Wright, a video-game pioneer. Messrs Page and Brin credit their Montessori education with their enthusiasm for thinking differently. Mr. Bezos thanks it for his enthusiasm for experimentation—for “planting seeds” and “going down blind alleys,” as he puts it. Mr. Wright says SimCity “comes right out of Montessori”. (Schumpeter, 2013)

Those who work with Mr. Bezos, for example, find his ability to ask “why not?” or “what if?,” as much as “why?” to be one of his most advantageous qualities. Questions are the new answers.

Simon Sinek, optimist, ethnographer, and inspirational speaker for leaders, tells us to “Start with Why” in everything you do to discover the purpose, cause, belief or passion that inspires you. Likewise, the Montessori method encourages children to discover their interests and passions throughout their formative years.

So today many companies are mixing such progressive ideas with more traditional ones like encouraging competition and measuring performance. Companies encouraging Montessori concepts are facilitating free-flowing creativity, collaboration and open-plan work spaces. Although the interpretation of open work spaces is not necessarily Montessori in origins, a Montessori classroom has discernible work areas providing children the tools to define their work spaces so that they can make choices of where they want to be, or feel comfortable, working – collaborating or not, quiet space for an individual, or at a group area.

Mu Sigma, a decision science and analytics services firm in Chicago, modeled their promotion and motivation practices on Montessori principals like independence, freedom with limits, and respect for natural development with their workforce. Instead of promoting the top 10 percent, they promoted new hires as a group and gave them a new job title. During the first 18 months, managers met with employees one-on-one to provide feedback and discuss areas for improvement and growth. Instead of using monetary or status promotions as “carrots,” they are now giving workers interesting projects, guidance and encouragement. In other words, Mu Sigma has learned that this approach brings greater loyalty from their workers, and that intrinsic motivation is better than money and promotion for retention.

Tying extrinsic rewards to an activity, like money for reading or high grade for tests negatively impacts motivation to engage in that activity when the reward is withdrawn (La Fabbrica Della Realta). In Montessori classrooms the challenging activity, time to explore and understand the solution is reward enough. Most young people do not choose start up jobs just for the money, of course they have to pay the rent and contribute to their hobbies, but for them the reward is the act of creation and innovation.

For all Generation X and Millennials we are hiring, the work has to be challenging, with autonomy and thus more enjoyable for everyone in the work environment.

Start-ups and large companies can benefit from the principals of Montessori education. A work environment that is thoughtfully prepared, allowing for movement within a variety of conditions and participation in challenging projects, that fosters collaborating with others allows for higher job satisfaction. Workers who pursue their interests within meaningful context have a deeper commitment to the work being done, which in turn provides for a greater positive “recognition” in their total life experience.



Cassese, M. (2015). The Montessori startup and the dream of a Montessori workplace. April 5, 2015. Retrieved from

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. (2008). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Denning, Steve. (2011). Is Montessori the origin of Google & Amazon? Forbes: August 2, 2011. Retrieved from

Dhiraj, M. (2012). Develop leaders the Montessori way. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from

Montessori, Maria. (2008). The Montessori method. Virginia, Wilder Publications, LLC.

National Center for Montessori in the Public Sector (NCMPS). (2015b) retrieved from on 2/6/15.

Pink, Daniel. (2009). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York: Riverhead Books.

Schumpeter. (2013). Montessori management. The Economist: September 7, 2013. Retrieved from

Sims, Peter. (2011). The Montessori mafia. The Wall Street Journal, February 25, 2011. Retrieved from

Sinek, Simon. (2009). Start with why. New York: Penguin Group.

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